- Czech: kar
A cirque (French for "circus") is an amphitheatre-like valley, or valley head, formed at the head of a glacier by erosion. A cirque is also known as a coombe or coomb in England, a combe or comb in America, a corrie in Scotland and Ireland, and a cwm in Wales, although these terms apply to a specific feature of which several may be found in a cirque. The term "comb" is often found at the end of placenames such as Newcomb and Maycomb, where it is pronounced /kəm/.
FormationA Cirque is a landform found in the mountains as a result of alpine glaciers. They can be up to a square kilometre in size, situated high on a mountain side near the firn line, and are typically partially surrounded on three sides by steep cliffs. The highest cliff is often called a headwall. The fourth side is the "lip" which is the side that the glacier flowed away from the cirque. Many glacial cirques contain tarns dammed by either till or a bedrock threshold. When enough snow accumulates it can flow out the opening of the bowl and form valley glaciers which can be several kilometers long.
Cirques form in conditions which are favorable; which in the northern hemisphere includes the north-east slope where they are protected from the majority of the sun’s energy and from the prevailing winds. If the accumulation of snow increases, the snow transforms into glacial ice. These areas are sheltered from heat, and so, they encourage the accumulation of snow. If the accumulation of snow increases, the snow transforms into glacial ice. The process of nivation follows (where a hollow in a slope may be enlarged by freeze-thaw weathering and glacial erosion). The freeze-thaw erodes at the lower rocks and causes it to disintegrate, which can result in an avalanche bringing down more snow and rock to add to the growing glacier. Eventually, this hollow can become big enough so that glacial erosion intensifies. Debris (or till) in the ice may also abrade (glacial abrasion) the bed surface; should ice move down a slope it would have a ‘sandpaper effect’ on the bedrock beneath on which it scrapes.
Eventually, the hollow can become a large bowl shape in the side of the mountain, with the headwall being weathered by constant freezing and thawing, and eroded by plucking. The basin will become deeper if it continues to become eroded by abrasion. Should plucking and abrasion continue, the dimensions of the cirque will increase, but the proportion of the landform would remain roughly the same. A bergschrund forms when the movement of the glacier separates the moving ice from the stationary ice forming a crevasse. The method of erosion of the headwall lying between the surface of the glacier and the cirque’s floor has been attributed to freeze-thaw mechanisms. The temperature within the bergschrund changes very little, however studies have shown that frost shattering can happen with only small changes in temperature. Water that flows into the bergschrund can be cooled to freezing temperatures by the surrounding ice allowing freeze-thaw mechanisms to occur.
If two adjacent cirques erode toward one another, an arête, or steep sided ridge, forms. When three or more cirques erode toward one another, a pyramidal peak is created. In some cases, this peak will be made accessible by one or more arêtes. The Matterhorn in the European Alps is an example of such a peak.
Glaciers can only originate above the snowline, studying the location of present day cirques provides information on past glaciations patterns and climate change.
- Blue Lake Cirque, NSW, Australia
- Mount Ashland, Oregon, United States
- Chandra Taal, Himachal Pradesh, India
- Circo de Gredos, Sierra de Gredos, Spain
- Cirque de Gavarnie, Pyrenees, France
- Cirque de Navacelles, Massif Central, France
- Cirque of the Towers, Wyoming, United States
- Cirque Valley, Hindu Kush, Pakistan
- Gerlachovský štít, High Tatras, Slovakia
- Great Basin, Maine, United States
- Iceberg Cirque, Montana, United States
- Ramon Crater, Israel
- Śnieżne Kotły, Giant Mountains, Poland
- Tuckerman Ravine, New Hampshire, United States
- Western Cwm, Khumbu Himal, Nepal
cirque in Aragonese: Cul
cirque in Bulgarian: Циркус
cirque in Bosnian: Cirk
cirque in Czech: Kar
cirque in Welsh: Cwm
cirque in German: Kar (Talform)
cirque in Estonian: Tsirkusorg
cirque in Spanish: Circo glaciar
cirque in French: Cirque naturel
cirque in Galician: Circo glaciar
cirque in Hindi: हिमगह्वर
cirque in Croatian: Cirk
cirque in Italian: Circo glaciale
cirque in Lithuanian: Kara
cirque in Dutch: Keteldal
cirque in Japanese: 圏谷
cirque in Norwegian: Botn
cirque in Norwegian Nynorsk: Botn
cirque in Polish: Cyrk lodowcowy
cirque in Portuguese: Circo (geologia)
cirque in Russian: Кар (форма рельефа)
cirque in Slovak: Kar (geológia)
cirque in Slovenian: Krnica